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Welcome to The Dean’s English

Often humorous, always educational, this website promotes standard written and spoken American English.

Thanks for stopping by my website! My overarching goal is to celebrate and affirm standard written and spoken English and consequently promote clearer, more effective interpersonal communication. To that end, I’ve written blog posts and included other resources related to writing, language, grammar, words, usage, punctuation, and even pronunciation. For a few chuckles, check out the “Grammar Funnies” tab.

Why do I write this blog and manage this site? I’m an educator by nature and nurture and a lover of the English language. I get energized by reading English-usage manuals and studying the why-fors and what-have-yous of grammar and punctuation. To use old colloquial expressions, I really dig this stuff. It floats my boat.

Please explore the pages in the menu above to learn about me, my copyediting services, and other resources. If nothing else, you might enjoy the Grammar Funnies page.

All writers hope that people read and appreciate their writings. So I invite you to become a follower of this blog, to “like” it, to leave comments, and to contact me with English grammar and usage questions or ideas for future blog topics.

And please share my website and individual blog articles with friends, family, business associates, and schoolmates. It will be the gift that keeps on giving.


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Once Darkness, But Now Light

Get your copy on Amazon!

A veteran journalist and long-time adult-class Sunday school teacher penned these words after reading a pre-publication copy of my newest book:

“There’s really only one question I ask myself when judging the value of a book: would I read it again? I love to revisit the works of writers like C.S. Lewis, Oswald Chambers, William Law, Spurgeon, Dallas Willard. Andrew Murray and others. Their thoughts on the universal truths in scripture never grow old.

Once Darkness is a book I would read again. The truths expressed by Paul are universal and your exposition of the apostle’s words deepens our understanding. Your research and understanding of the subject matter is thorough. Your writing is clear and easy to understand. You have a knack for anticipating questions that might occur to readers and you satisfy that curiosity with a timely footnote or explanation.

“I liked the way you addressed the age-old debate about predestination and free will.  Citing the two views invites readers to dig deeper. You give your readers something to think about on every page. How encouraging it must have been for Paul’s readers (who were probably listeners as you point out) to be reminded that as Gentiles they were one with Jews in Christ. The summary and discussion questions after each chapter is a useful tool for leading a study of Ephesians. 

“To sum up, your theological knowledge,  writing and teaching skills and hard work have produced a spiritual feast for those who hunger to know God better through the writing of Paul.”

I hope you’ll obtain a copy for yourself. Click on the photo for a direct link to Amazon. Thanks.

Available on Amazon

The Merry Mondegreen

Did I hear that right?

Years ago, I read a book where the author repeatedly used the expression “beckoned call”—as in, “The clerk responded readily to his boss’s every beckoned call at the office.” Beckoned call? That was like fingernails on the chalkboard to my fussy grammar-ears. It should have been beck and call. And then I decided to look it up in one of my go-to language reference books: Garner’s Modern American Usage. Not only did Garner have an entry on this quirky expression, but he also even supplied a label for slightly “off” words and expressions that result from mishearing the actual word or expression: “mondegreens.”

According to Garner, a mondegreen is “a misheard lyric, saying, catchphrase, or slogan.” Scottish writer Sylvia Wright introduced mondegreen to the English-speaking world in 1954 in a magazine article where she recounted how she, as a child, misunderstood a line in a popular ballad. The line was “laid him on the green,” but to her young ears it was “Lady Mondegreen.”

Children are good at mishearing words and song lyrics and producing clever alternatives that fit with their developing language database. Maybe you’ve heard of the little guy who sang “round John Virgin” instead of “round yon Virgin” in “Away in a Manger.” Or the Star-Spangled Banner’s “Jose can you see, by the donzerly light?” Some tykes think the letter in the alphabet between k and p is “ellemeno.”

It took a while for my wife and me to figure out that Fleetwood Mac’s song “Take a Chance on Me” featured the phrase “Honey, I’m still free,” not “ollie oxen free.” (True confession.)

But some mondegreens occur in adulthood, and they are often harder to shake—and more embarrassing. We say, “Little Johnny’s the spitting image of his father,” which is actually a corruption of the original spit and image (or spit ’n’ image), from a time when spit commonly meant “perfect likeness” (you can look it up).[1]

We hear “mute point” (which should be moot point) and “for all intensive purposes” (make that “for all intents and purposes”). I heard a local television news reporter recently explain how the storm “wrecked havoc.” While an understandable word choice, it’s a mondegreen. The expression is wreaked havoc. Close, but no cigar.

The satisfying thing to me, the fellow with the sometimes fussy-grammar ears, is that I now have a label for these slightly “off” words, expressions, and sayings. Mondegreens.


[1] Hawking up a loogie has nothing to do with how Johnny resembles his father.

This essay is taken from my book Whatever Happened to English?

Some Fourth of July Thoughts

Happy Independence Day!

How to write it: According to commonly accepted style conventions for formal English, official secular and religious holidays are written out and capitalized. Therefore we have Fourth of July, July Fourth, the Fourth, or Independence Day (note the four e’s and no a in Independence). Of course, informally we can (and I do) write it 4th of July or any way that others will understand.

Fascinating coincidence: Our second and third presidents (John Adams and Thomas Jefferson), who were both instrumental in the American Revolution and the founding of our country, died on the same day—July 4, 1826—the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence.

Freedom, like anything else, has a cost. It is not free. It requires sacrifice, vigilance, and a courageous commitment to do what is right, even if what is right isn’t popular. Today, our freedom is under relentless attack by those who would force everyone to conform to their “new” conception of America. We must hold firmly to the ideals of our Founding Fathers, who believed that all men are created equal and thereby share the right to Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.

Happy 246th birthday, America! Have a safe ‘n’ sane Fourth, everyone!

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How to Write “God” Words

Most “God” words are actually “god” words.

godWhen I write a word with “God” in it, I sometimes need to pause to make sure I’m capitalizing—or not capitalizing—the word appropriately. Given my lifelong Christian faith, my first thought is to capitalize almost all such words. If “God” is in it, out of reverence, the word should be capitalized. But is that necessary or grammatically correct?

The truth is, most “God” words are actually “god” words, with lowercase g’s, and writing them according to long-established and widely accepted conventions of Standard Written English does not make a person of faith less faithful. Let’s consider the most common “God” words. I’ve consulted several sources for this, including Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th ed., and The Christian Writer’s Manual of Style. Continue reading “How to Write “God” Words”

How to Write Academic Degree Titles

Do you know how to correctly write college degree titles?

The landing gear is down on another academic year as students and faculty make their final approach toward the graduation runway. Many soon-to-be newly minted grads are now wading into the sometimes turbulent, often murky, and always anxiety-producing waters of job hunting.

So let’s think about how to correctly write academic degree titles on résumés, cover letters, celebration invitations, and LinkedIn profiles. This can be confusing, and in my twenty years in higher education I saw many resumes and applications where the writer apparently didn’t know how to correctly indicate his or her own degree. Stumbling over something so basic may not go over well with prospective employers. It never hurts to get this right. Continue reading “How to Write Academic Degree Titles”

Impossible to Define This Word?

What is a “woman”?

“Can you provide a definition for the word ‘woman’?” the senator asked the female judge, a candidate for justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, on March 22, 2022.

“Can I provide a definition? No,” the candidate responded. “I can’t.”

“You can’t?” the senator asked.

“Not in this context, I’m not a biologist,” the judge replied.[1]

I realize that Supreme Court candidates are grilled mercilessly prior to confirmation, so I sympathize with the judge, who was thrown for a loop by a difficult question completely outside her field of expertise. I mean, let’s be real here. For example . . .

  • Would you ask me for directions to my house? Good luck! I’m no cartographer.
  • Should I be expected to tell you if it’s sunny or raining outside? Excuse me, do you think I’m a meteorologist?
  • How does one flush a toilet? C’mon, man, I’m not a plumber, for pity’s sake!

I’m no biologist either, but I know a thing or two about the English language. And being a married man,[2] I know enough about women to assure you that I ain’t one. But I digress.

Allow me to help the good judge by explaining for her what a woman is. I’ll restrict my comments to the realms of lexicography and etymology.[3]

Okay, here we go, your honor! Are you ready? I’ll type slowly, because this can be pretty hard:

A woman is “AN ADULT FEMALE PERSON.”[4]

Let’s break it down further: An (indefinite article) adult (as opposed to a child or youth) female (as opposed to a male) person (as opposed to an animal, plant, fish, etc.).

That’s the lexicographical answer. Are you still with me, your honor? Good! I know you’re in uncharted territory now, so when you catch your breath, we’ll look at etymology. Fasten your seatbelt!

Woman has been a part of the English language since  approximately AD 1250. It can be traced back several centuries before that. It probably developed out of wumman or womman (before AD 1200), and before that from the Old English wimman (c. AD 1000), which probably evolved from wīfman (before c. AD 766), a compound of wīf (woman) and man (human being).[5] (You might notice, incidentally, that the word wife originated from wīf—woman). Not exactly rocket science—I mean, biology—now, is it?

I do sincerely hope this little tutorial helps your honor in addressing matters of jurisprudence, biology, or simple word definitions going forward. We don’t want you to be caught off guard again. You’re welcome!


[1] Source: https://www.foxnews.com/politics/ketanji-brown-jackson-bidens-supreme-court-pick-refuses-to-define-the-word-woman

[2] I’m married to a woman, by the way, which, in the history of the world until very recently no one would have thought to question. But now, I recognize, we are much more enlightened.

[3] That is, dictionaries (lexicography) and word origins (etymology).

[4] Merriam-Webster. 2020. Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, 11th edition. Frederick C. Mish, ed. Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc.

[5] Barnhardt, Robert, ed. 1995. The Barnhardt Concise Dictionary of Etymology. New York: HarperCollins (p. 847). Partridge, Eric. 1983. Origins: A Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English. New York: Greenwich House, (p. 776).


EDITOR’S UPDATE (7/14/22): Unless a person is (1) deliberately lying, (2) mentally ill, (3) well-intentioned (perhaps even smart) but duped, or (4) an intellectual wee one, every otherwise honest, sane, sincere, intelligent person knows there are but two sexes: male and female. That’s it. There are therefore two—and only two—basic categories of human beings: men and women (or boys and girls, depending on one’s age). Period. There aren’t three, or ten, or fifty genders. There are two. This is not rocket science (or even biology, as the good judge contends).

It’s also not rocket science to recognize this insanity as part of a deliberate strategy to dismantle the traditional Judeo-Christian values that are the bedrock of Western Civilization, which is a central aim of Marxism.

For further reading, check out these thoughtful articles:

And the well-written book Irreversible Damage: The Transgender Craze Seducing Our Daughters, by Abigail Shrier, available on Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/Irreversible-Damage-Transgender-Seducing-Daughters/dp/168451228X/ref=sr_1_1?crid=NURE312G392F&keywords=irreversible+damage+book+by+abigail+shrier&qid=1663077476&s=books&sprefix=irre%2Cstripbooks%2C226&sr=1-1

Happy National Grammar Day!

Lay vs. Lie: Oh, the Confusion! Oh, the Humanity!

This Friday, March 4, is National Grammar Day. I couldn’t possibly pass it up without writing a few words for this blog, which is ostensibly about grammar.

Garner’s Modern American Usage claims that “one of the most widely-known of all usage errors” is using lay for lie. This confusion is nearly universal, and whenever I discover a writer or speaker who uses lay and lie correctly, I nearly faint from the sheer wonder of it. It is hardly overstated to say that the correct use of lay and lie is the shibboleth of the educated writer or speaker. (Now there’s a biblical allusion for you biblical allusionists.)

First, let’s have some definitions. Again, Garner says, “lie (= to recline, be situated) is intransitive—it can’t take a direct object <he lies on his bed>. But lay (= to put down, arrange) is always transitive—it needs a direct object <please lay the book on my desk>.”

Let me partially inflect these two verbs and then give several examples (I’ll save the present and past participles for another time):

            Verb               Present          Past               

            1. lay (v.t.)      lay                   laid    

            2. lie (v.i.)      lie                    lay

Got it? Still with me? (Just nod your head.) Here are some examples of when to use lay (#1).

Lay (present tense): “Honey, please lay the baby (direct object) down for his nap.”

Lay (past tense): “She laid the baby (direct object) in his crib for his nap.”

Lay (present tense): “Let us lay our heads (direct object) on our pillows and get some sleep.”

Lay (past tense): “We laid our heads (direct object) on our pillows.”

Here’s a trick to help you remember: When you mean “put,” use “lay.” When you are doing something to something, use “lay.” You never use lay to describe lying down (unless it’s past tense—see the chart). Here are some examples of when to use lie (#2):

Lie (present tense): “Sheila went to the beach to lie on the sand.”

Lie (past tense): “When Sheila went to the beach last weekend, she lay on the sand all day.” (Note, the past tense of lie is not laid. You use laid only when talking about putting something somewhere—“The Ladies Guild laid out a feast for all the revelers to enjoy.”)

Lie (present tense): “It’s time for me to lie down and take my nap.”

Lie (past tense): “I lay (not laid) in bed for two hours this afternoon.”

Lie (present tense): “Come here, Spot, and lie down. Lie down, Spot!”

Lie (past tense): “Spot is such a good dog. She lay on her bed all through dinner.”

Lie (present tense): “The bandit decided to lie low until the heat was off.”

Lie (past tense): “The bandit lay low for two years and then came out of hiding.”

There. That’s enough about lay and lie for one sitting. It’s time for me to lay my books down and lie on the floor to do my stretches.

Need some great resources for improving your grammar? Check out My Bookshelf and Writing Helps, both here on my website.

The Most Common Languages, Other Than English or Spanish, Spoken in Each U.S. State

I found this interesting.

Martin Luther King Jr. Day Reflections

The Ideal of a Colorblind Society

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. had the right idea about race relations, eloquently expounded during the height of the Civil Rights Movement in his famous speech at the Lincoln Memorial in 1963. His “dream” for his children was that one day in America they would be judged not by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I believe we could call that world a colorblind society. One of the definitions of colorblind, according to Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, is “not influenced by differences of race … free from racial prejudice.” The New Oxford Dictionary similarly defines it as “not influenced by racial prejudice: a color-blind society.” That seems to be the sort of society that MLK lived – and died – for. It is a world in which “all men are created equal,” the ideal of the Founding Fathers.

As a nation, we made great strides toward realizing that dream and that ideal, until the unfortunate rise of cultural Marxism, Critical Race Theory, BLM, and the so-called antiracist doctrines of those who would demonize a certain segment of our society. Today it is no longer good, or even okay, to be colorblind, to be not racist. Now, according to the twisted linguistic and ideological gymnastics of the cultural Marxist elites who shape the prevailing progressive narrative in America, to be colorblind is to be actually racist! Astoundingly, to be not racist, according to this convoluted logic, is to be, in fact, a white supremacist, of all things. Now one must be antiracist.

The net effect of these progressive efforts has been to divide us, rather than unify us, based solely on the color of our skin. The current mantra of the so-called woke is that America is still incurably, systemically racist, as though the hard work and sacrifices of Dr. King and his fellow laborers in the Civil Rights Movement were all in vain, that they amounted to nothing. I seriously doubt Dr. King would agree with that assessment. To preach such a grim, false message dishonors his memory.

I am truly thankful for Dr. King’s tremendous insight, courage, and dedication, all tragically cut way too short by an assassin’s bullet in 1968.

Major League Baseball’s All-Time Greatest Teams

Not about “English” per se, this is for my fellow baseball fans.

There are at least two easy ways of answering the question of which are the all-time greatest teams:[1] (1) the teams who were most dominant in particular seasons, and (2) the teams who have won the most World Series. The second criterion is easy, the New York Yankees have won by far more World Series than any other team in MLB history.[2]

As for the first criterion, I have employed three easy, objective criteria to rank the top ten teams—those that were most dominant relative to the rest of their respective leagues in individual seasons. The three criteria are as follows:

  • A winning percentage of .650 or higher. This means that for a 162-game season they won a minimum of 105 games; for a 154-game season, at least 100 games.
  • They won the World Series (WS) that year. This criterion excludes several great teams that had phenomenal, league-dominating seasons; however, if a club fails to continue that dominance all the way to a championship, can I honestly rank them among the best-of-the-best all-time teams? I debated this at some length and decided I could not.
  • Their Delta score ranking. (Their what score?) The first two criteria whittled down the possibilities tremendously. The teams meeting those minimum qualifications were then ranked according to a very simple statistic I devised: the Delta score. (It needed a name, right? Why not Delta (∆), the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet, which happens to be the first letter of the author’s name. (Disclaimer: I wrote originally wrote this long before the delta variant of COVID-19 had raised its ugly head.)
Continue reading “Major League Baseball’s All-Time Greatest Teams”
The Dean's English

Celebrating Standard Written English and Effective Communication

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